Exhibit 3.2

BYLAWS OF

ASV HOLDINGS, INC.

(effective May 11, 2017)


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

                 Page  

ARTICLE I — CORPORATE OFFICES

     1  
   1.1      REGISTERED OFFICE      1  
   1.2      OTHER OFFICES      1  

ARTICLE II — MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

     1  
   2.1      PLACE OF MEETINGS      1  
   2.2      ANNUAL MEETING      1  
   2.3      SPECIAL MEETING      1  
   2.4      ADVANCE NOTICE PROCEDURES      2  
   2.5      NOTICE OF STOCKHOLDERS’ MEETINGS      10  
   2.6      QUORUM      10  
   2.7      ADJOURNED MEETING; NOTICE      10  
   2.8      CONDUCT OF BUSINESS      11  
   2.9      VOTING      11  
   2.10      STOCKHOLDER ACTION BY WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT A MEETING      11  
   2.11      RECORD DATES      11  
   2.12      PROXIES      12  
   2.13      LIST OF STOCKHOLDERS ENTITLED TO VOTE      12  
   2.14      INSPECTORS OF ELECTION      13  

ARTICLE III — DIRECTORS

     13  
   3.1      POWERS      13  
   3.2      NUMBER OF DIRECTORS      13  
   3.3      ELECTION, QUALIFICATION AND TERM OF OFFICE OF DIRECTORS      13  
   3.4      RESIGNATION AND VACANCIES      14  
   3.5      PLACE OF MEETINGS; MEETINGS BY TELEPHONE      14  
   3.6      REGULAR MEETINGS      15  
   3.7      SPECIAL MEETINGS; NOTICE      15  
   3.8      QUORUM; VOTING      15  
   3.9      BOARD ACTION BY WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT A MEETING      16  
   3.10      FEES AND COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS      16  
   3.11      REMOVAL OF DIRECTORS      16  

ARTICLE IV — COMMITTEES

     16  
   4.1      COMMITTEES OF DIRECTORS      16  
   4.2      COMMITTEE MINUTES      16  
   4.3      MEETINGS AND ACTION OF COMMITTEES      17  
   4.4      SUBCOMMITTEES      17  

ARTICLE V — OFFICERS

     17  
   5.1      OFFICERS      17  

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

(continued)

 

           Page
   5.2      APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS    18
   5.3      SUBORDINATE OFFICERS    18
   5.4      REMOVAL AND RESIGNATION OF OFFICERS    18
   5.5      VACANCIES IN OFFICES    18
   5.6      REPRESENTATION OF SHARES OF OTHER CORPORATIONS    18
   5.7      AUTHORITY AND DUTIES OF OFFICERS    19
   5.8      THE CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD    19
   5.9      THE VICE CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD    19
   5.10      THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER    19
   5.11      THE PRESIDENT    19
   5.12      THE VICE PRESIDENTS AND ASSISTANT VICE PRESIDENTS    19
   5.13      THE SECRETARY AND ASSISTANT SECRETARIES    20
   5.14      THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER    20
   5.15      TREASURER AND ASSISTANT TREASURERS    20

ARTICLE VI — STOCK

   20
   6.1      STOCK CERTIFICATES; PARTLY PAID SHARES    20
   6.2      SPECIAL DESIGNATION ON CERTIFICATES    21
   6.3      LOST, STOLEN OR DESTROYED CERTIFICATES    21
   6.4      DIVIDENDS    22
   6.5      TRANSFER OF STOCK    22
   6.6      STOCK TRANSFER AGREEMENTS    22
   6.7      REGISTERED STOCKHOLDERS    22

ARTICLE VII — MANNER OF GIVING NOTICE AND WAIVER

   22
   7.1      NOTICE OF STOCKHOLDERS’ MEETINGS    22
   7.2      NOTICE BY ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION    23
   7.3      NOTICE TO STOCKHOLDERS SHARING AN ADDRESS    23
   7.4      NOTICE TO PERSON WITH WHOM COMMUNICATION IS UNLAWFUL    24
   7.5      WAIVER OF NOTICE    24

ARTICLE VIII — INDEMNIFICATION

   24
   8.1      INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS IN THIRD PARTY PROCEEDINGS    24
   8.2     

INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS IN ACTIONS BY OR IN THE RIGHT OF THE CORPORATION

   25
   8.3      SUCCESSFUL DEFENSE    25
   8.4      INDEMNIFICATION OF OTHERS    25
   8.5      ADVANCED PAYMENT OF EXPENSES    25
   8.6      LIMITATION ON INDEMNIFICATION    26
   8.7      DETERMINATION; CLAIM    26
   8.8      NON-EXCLUSIVITY OF RIGHTS    27
   8.9      INSURANCE    27

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

(continued)

 

                

Page

   8.10      SURVIVAL    27
   8.11      EFFECT OF REPEAL OR MODIFICATION    27
   8.12      CERTAIN DEFINITIONS    27

ARTICLE IX — GENERAL MATTERS

   28
   9.1      EXECUTION OF CORPORATE CONTRACTS AND INSTRUMENTS    28
   9.2      FISCAL YEAR    28
   9.3      SEAL    28
   9.4      CONSTRUCTION; DEFINITIONS    28

ARTICLE X — AMENDMENTS

   28

 

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BYLAWS OF ASV HOLDINGS, INC.

 

 

 

ARTICLE I — CORPORATE OFFICES

1.1 REGISTERED OFFICE

The registered office of ASV Holdings, Inc. (the “Corporation”) shall be fixed in the Corporation’s certificate of incorporation. References in these bylaws to the certificate of incorporation shall mean the certificate of incorporation of the Corporation, as amended from time to time, including the terms of any certificate of designations of any series of Preferred Stock.

1.2 OTHER OFFICES

The Corporation’s board of directors may at any time establish other offices at any place or places where the Corporation is qualified to do business.

ARTICLE II — MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

2.1 PLACE OF MEETINGS

Meetings of stockholders shall be held at any place, within or outside the State of Delaware, designated by the board of directors. The board of directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that a meeting of stockholders shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication as authorized by Section 211(a)(2) of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”). In the absence of any such designation or determination, stockholders’ meetings shall be held at the Corporation’s principal executive office.

2.2 ANNUAL MEETING

The annual meeting of stockholders shall be held on such date, at such time, and at such place (if any) within or without the State of Delaware as shall be designated from time to time by the board of directors and stated in the Corporation’s notice of the meeting. At the annual meeting, directors shall be elected and any other proper business may be transacted.

2.3 SPECIAL MEETING

(i) Special meetings of stockholders of the Corporation may be called only by the chairman of the board of directors or the board of directors acting pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the board of directors, and any power of stockholders to call a special meeting of stockholders is specifically denied. The board of directors may cancel, postpone or reschedule any previously scheduled special meeting at any time, before or after the notice for such meeting has been sent to the stockholders.

(ii) The notice of a special meeting shall include the purpose for which the meeting is called. Only such business shall be considered at a special meeting of stockholders as shall have been stated in the notice for such meeting. Nothing contained in this Section 2.3(ii) shall be construed as limiting, fixing or affecting the time when a meeting of stockholders called by action of the board of directors may be held.

 

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2.4 ADVANCE NOTICE PROCEDURES

(i) Advance Notice of Stockholder Business.

(a) At an annual meeting of the stockholders, only such business (other than nominations of directors, which must be made in compliance with, and shall be exclusively governed by, Section 2.4(ii) of these bylaws) shall be conducted, and only such proposals shall be acted upon, as shall have been properly brought before the meeting:

(1) pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of meeting;

(2) by or at the direction of the board of directors; or

(3) by any stockholder of the Corporation who is a stockholder of record both at the time of the giving of the notice provided for in this Section 2.4 and at the time of the meeting, who shall be entitled to vote at such meeting and who shall have complied with the notice and other requirements set forth in this Section 2.4; this clause (3) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to submit such business (other than matters properly brought under Rule 14a-8 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) and included in the Corporation’s notice of meeting) before an annual meeting of stockholders.

(b) For any such business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder pursuant to clause (3) of paragraph (a) of this Section 2.4, the stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in writing to the secretary of the Corporation as hereinafter provided and such proposal must otherwise be a proper subject for action by the Corporation’s stockholders. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice in writing must be delivered to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation and received by the secretary not less than 90 nor more than 120 days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, however, that in the event that no annual meeting was held in the previous year or the date of the annual meeting is advanced by more than 30 days or delayed by more than 60 days from such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so received not earlier than the opening of business on the 120th day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the 90th day prior to such annual meeting or the tenth day following the day on which public announcement of the date of the meeting is first made, whichever occurs first. In no event shall any adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above. Such stockholder’s notice shall set forth:

(1) as to each matter the stockholder proposes to bring before the annual meeting, a brief description of the business to be brought before the annual meeting, the reasons for conducting such business at such meeting, and the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and, in the event that such business includes a proposal to amend these bylaws of the Corporation, the text of the proposed amendment);

(2) as to the stockholder giving the notice and any Stockholder Associated Person (as defined below), the Proposing Stockholder Information (as defined below);

 

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(3) any material interest of the stockholder and of any Stockholder Associated Person in such business;

(4) a description of all agreements, arrangements and understandings between such stockholder and any Stockholder Associated Person, and any other person or persons (including their names) in connection with the proposal of such business by the stockholder;

(5) a representation that the stockholder is a holder of record of stock of the Corporation, entitled to vote at such meeting, and intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to propose such business; and

(6) a representation as to whether the stockholder or any Stockholder Associated Person is, or intends to be, part of a Group (as defined below) that intends (A) to deliver a proxy statement and/or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the Corporation’s outstanding capital stock required to approve or adopt the proposal and/or (B) otherwise to solicit proxies from stockholders in support of such proposal.

(c) Only such business shall be conducted, and only such proposals shall be acted upon, at a special meeting of stockholders called pursuant to Section 2.3 as shall have been brought before such meeting pursuant to a notice of meeting delivered pursuant to Section 2.5.

(d) No business shall be conducted at a meeting of stockholders (i) except in accordance with these bylaws; or (ii) if it constitutes an improper subject for stockholder action under applicable law. Unless otherwise required by law, if a stockholder (or Qualified Representative (as defined below)) does not appear at the meeting of stockholders of the Corporation to present business proposed by such stockholder pursuant to this Section 2.4, such proposed business shall not be transacted, even though proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation. In the event a Qualified Representative of a stockholder will appear at a meeting to make a proposal in lieu of a stockholder, the stockholder must provide the notice of such designation at least twenty-four hours prior to the meeting and the Qualified Representative must produce evidence of such representative’s authority to act on behalf of the stockholder at the meeting of stockholders. If no such advance notice is provided, only the stockholder may make the proposal and the proposal may be disregarded in the event the stockholder fails to appear and make the proposal. Except as otherwise provided by law, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, the chairman of the meeting may, if the facts warrant, determine that the proposed business was not properly brought before the meeting in accordance with the provisions of these bylaws (including whether the stockholder or any Stockholder Associated Person solicited (or is part of a Group which solicited) or did not so solicit, as the case may be, proxies in support of such stockholder’s proposal in compliance with such stockholder’s representation as required by clause (b)(6) of this Section 2.4); and if the chairman should so determine, the chairman shall so declare to the meeting, and any such proposed business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted.

(e) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 2.4, a stockholder shall also comply with all applicable requirements of state law and the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder with respect to the matters set forth in this Section 2.4; provided, however, that any references in these bylaws to state law or the Exchange Act or the rules promulgated thereunder are not intended to and shall not limit the requirements applicable to business proposals to be considered pursuant to this Section 2.4 (including clause (a)(3) hereof). Nothing in these bylaws shall be deemed to affect any rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under the Exchange Act. The provisions of this Section 2.4 shall also govern what constitutes timely notice for purposes of Rule 14a-4(c) of the Exchange Act.

 

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(f) This Section 2.4 shall not prevent the consideration and approval or disapproval at the annual meeting of reports of officers, directors and committees of the board of directors, but, in connection with such reports, no new business shall be acted upon at the meeting unless stated, filed and recorded as herein provided.

(g) For purposes of these bylaws,

(1) “Derivative Instrument” shall mean any option, warrant, convertible security, stock appreciation right, or similar right with an exercise or conversion privilege or a settlement payment or mechanism at a price related to any class or series of shares of the Corporation or with a value derived in whole or in part from the value of any class or series of shares of the Corporation, whether or not such instrument or right shall be subject to settlement in the underlying class or series of capital stock of the Corporation or otherwise.

(2) “Group” shall have the meaning ascribed to such term under Section 13(d)(3) of the Exchange Act.

(3) “Proposing Stockholder Information” shall mean:

a) the name and address, as they appear on the Corporation’s books, of such stockholder and the name and address of each beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the proposal is made;

b) the class or series and number of shares of the Corporation’s stock which are, directly or indirectly, owned beneficially and of record, by each such person;

c) any Derivative Instrument (as defined above) directly or indirectly owned beneficially by each such person and any other direct or indirect opportunity to profit or share in any profit derived from any increase or decrease in the value of shares of the Corporation;

d) any proxy, contract, arrangement, understanding, or relationship pursuant to which each such person has a right to vote any shares of any security of the Corporation;

e) any short interest of each such person in any security of the Corporation (for purposes hereof a person shall be deemed to have a short interest in a security if each such person directly or indirectly, through any contract, arrangement, understanding, relationship or otherwise, has the opportunity to profit or share in any profit derived from any decrease in the value of the subject security);

f) any rights to dividends on the shares of the Corporation owned beneficially by each such person that are separated or separable from the underlying shares of the Corporation;

g) any proportionate interest in shares of the Corporation or Derivative Instruments held, directly or indirectly, by a general or limited partnership or limited liability company in which such person is a general partner or manager or, directly or indirectly, beneficially owns an interest in a general partner or manager;

 

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h) any performance-related fees (other than an asset-based fee) that each such person is entitled to based on any increase or decrease in the value of shares of the Corporation or Derivative Instruments, if any, as of the date of such notice, including without limitation any such interests held by members of each such person’s immediate family sharing the same household (which information shall be supplemented by each such person not later than 10 days after the record date for the meeting to disclose such ownership as of the record date);

i) the investment strategy or objective, if any, of each such person and a copy of the prospectus, offering memorandum or similar document, if any, provided to investors or potential investors in each such person; and

j) any other information relating to each such person that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies for, as applicable, the proposal and/or for the election of directors in a contested election pursuant to Section 14 of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

(4) “Public Announcement” shall include disclosure in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Service, Associated Press, Reuters or comparable news service or in a document publicly filed or furnished by the Corporation with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(b) of the Exchange Act.

(5) “Qualified Representative” of a stockholder shall mean a duly authorized officer, manager or partner of such stockholder or a representative authorized by a writing executed by, or an electronic transmission delivered by, such stockholder to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting of stockholders.

(6) “Stockholder Associated Person” of any stockholder shall mean:

a) any person acting in concert with such stockholder;

b) any beneficial owner of shares of stock of the Corporation owned of record or beneficially by such stockholder (other than a stockholder that is a depositary); or

c) any person that directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, or is controlled by, or is under common control with, such stockholder or such Stockholder Associated Person.

(ii) Advance Notice of Director Nominations at Annual and Special Meetings.

(a) Notwithstanding anything in these bylaws to the contrary, only persons who are nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 2.4(ii) shall be eligible for election or re-election as directors at a meeting of stockholders. Nominations of persons for election or re-election to the board of directors of the Corporation may be made at an annual meeting of stockholders only:

(1) pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of the meeting (or any supplement thereto);

 

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(2) by or at the direction of the board of directors; or

(3) by any stockholder of the Corporation who is a stockholder of record both at the time of the giving of the notice required by this Section 2.4(ii) and at the time of the annual meeting, who shall be entitled to vote for the election of directors at the meeting and who shall have complied with the notice and other requirements set forth in this Section 2.4(ii); this clause (3) shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors at an annual meeting of stockholders.

In the case of a special meeting of stockholders, nominations of persons for election to the board of directors may be made pursuant to the Corporation’s notice of meeting:

(1) by or at the direction of the board of directors; or

(2) provided that the board of directors has determined that directors shall be elected at such meeting, by any stockholder of the Corporation who is a stockholder of record at the time the notice provided for in this Section 2.4(ii) is delivered to the secretary of the Corporation, who is entitled to vote at the meeting upon such election and who complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 2.4(ii).

(b) To be eligible to be a nominee for election or reelection as a director of the Corporation, a person must not have been an officer or director of a competitor, as defined in Section 8 of the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914, within the past three years or be a named subject of a pending criminal proceeding (excluding traffic violations and other minor offenses) or have been convicted in such a criminal proceeding within the past ten years.

(c) To be eligible to be a nominee for election or reelection as a director of the Corporation, the prospective nominee (whether nominated by or at the direction of the board of directors or by a stockholder), or someone acting on such prospective nominee’s behalf, must deliver (in accordance with any applicable time periods prescribed for delivery of notice under this Section 2.4(ii)) to the secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation a written questionnaire providing such information with respect to the background and qualification of such person and the background of any other person or entity on whose behalf the nomination is being made that would be required to be disclosed to stockholders pursuant to applicable law or the rules and regulations of any stock exchange applicable to the Corporation, including without limitation all information concerning such persons that would be required to be disclosed in solicitations of proxies for election of directors pursuant to and in accordance with Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act, and any information the Corporation may reasonably request to determine the eligibility of the proposed nominee to serve as an independent director or that could be material to a reasonable stockholder’s understanding of the independence or lack thereof of the nominee (which questionnaire shall be provided by the Secretary upon written request).

(d) To be eligible to be a nominee for election or reelection as a director of the Corporation, the prospective nominee must also provide a written representation and agreement, in the form provided by the secretary upon written request, that such prospective nominee:

(1) is not and will not become a party to:

a) any Voting Commitment (as defined below) that has not been disclosed to the Corporation, or

b) any Voting Commitment that could limit or interfere with such prospective nominee’s ability to comply, if elected as a director of the Corporation, with such prospective nominee’s fiduciary duties under applicable law;

 

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(2) is not and will not become a party to any agreement, arrangement or understanding with any person or entity other than the Corporation with respect to any direct or indirect compensation, reimbursement or indemnification in connection with service or action as a director that has not been disclosed therein;

(3) would be in compliance if elected as a director of the Corporation, and will comply with all applicable corporate governance, conflict of interest, confidentiality and stock ownership and trading policies and guidelines of the Corporation. For purposes of this Section 2.4(ii)(a), a “nominee” shall include any person being considered to fill a vacancy on the Board of Directors;

(4) currently intends to serve the full term for which such nominee would be standing for election, if elected.

(e) Nominations by stockholders must be made pursuant to timely notice in writing to the secretary of the Corporation as hereinafter provided. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice in writing must be delivered to the secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation and received by the secretary:

(1) in the case of an annual meeting, not less than 90 nor more than 120 days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, however, that in the event that no annual meeting was held in the previous year or the date of the annual meeting is advanced by more than 30 days or delayed by more than 60 days from such anniversary date, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so received not earlier than the opening of business on the 120th day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the 90th day prior to such annual meeting or the tenth day following the day on which public announcement of the date of the meeting is first made, whichever occurs first; and

(2) in the case of a special meeting at which the board of directors gives notice that directors are to be elected, not earlier than the opening of business on the 120th day prior to such special meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the 90th day prior to such special meeting or the tenth day following the day on which public announcement is made of the date of the special meeting and of the nominees proposed by the board of directors to be elected at such meeting, whichever occurs first.

In no event shall any adjournment or postponement of a meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above.

 

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(f) For nominations to be properly brought before an annual or special meeting, such stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth:

(1) as to each person whom the stockholder proposes to nominate for election or re-election as a director:

a) all information relating to such person that would be required to be disclosed in solicitations of proxies for election of directors, or is otherwise required, in each case pursuant to and in accordance with Regulation 14A under the Exchange Act (including such person’s written consent to being named as a nominee and to serving as a director if elected) and

b) a description of any Proposed Nominee Agreements (as defined below);

(2) as to the stockholder giving the notice and any Stockholder Associated Person, the Proposing Stockholder Information;

(3) a representation that the stockholder is a holder of record of stock of the Corporation entitled to vote at such meeting and intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to propose such nomination; and

(4) a representation as to whether the stockholder or any Stockholder Associated Person is, or intends to be, part of a Group that intends:

a) to deliver a proxy statement and/or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the corporation’s outstanding capital stock required to elect the nominee and/or

b) otherwise to solicit proxies from stockholders in support of such nomination. At the request of the board of directors, any person nominated by the board of directors for election as a director shall furnish to the Secretary that information required to be set forth in a stockholder’s notice of nomination which pertains to the nominee.

(g) Notwithstanding anything in this Section 2.4(ii) to the contrary, in the event that the number of directors to be elected to the board of directors at an annual meeting is increased effective at the annual meeting and there is no public announcement by the Corporation naming all the nominees proposed by the board of directors for the additional directorships at least 100 days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting, a stockholder’s notice required by this Section 2.4(ii) shall also be considered timely, but only with respect to nominees for such additional directorships, if it shall be delivered to the secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not later than the close of business on the tenth day following the day on which such public announcement is first made by the Corporation.

(h) No person shall be eligible for election as a director of the Corporation unless nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in these bylaws. Unless otherwise required by law, if a stockholder (or Qualified Representative) does not appear at the meeting of stockholders of the Corporation to present a nomination proposed by such stockholder pursuant to these bylaws, such nomination shall be disregarded, though proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the Corporation. In the event a Qualified Representative of a stockholder will appear at a meeting and make a nomination in lieu of a stockholder, the stockholder must provide the notice of such designation at least twenty-four hours prior to the meeting and the Qualified Representative must produce evidence of such representative’s authority to act on behalf of the stockholder at the meeting of stockholders. If no such advance notice is provided, only the

 

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stockholder may make the nomination and the nomination may be disregarded in the event the stockholder fails to appear and make the nomination. Except as otherwise provided by law, the certificate of incorporation or these By-Laws, the chairman of the meeting may, if the facts warrant, determine that a nomination was not made in accordance with the procedures of these bylaws (including whether the stockholder or any Stockholder Associated Person solicited (or is part of a Group which solicited) or did not so solicit, as the case may be, proxies in support of such stockholder’s nominee in compliance with such stockholder’s representation as required by clause (f)(4) of this Section 2.4(ii)); and if the chairman should so determine, the chairman shall so declare to the meeting, and the defective nomination shall be disregarded.

(i) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of these bylaws, a stockholder shall also comply with all applicable requirements of state law and the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder with respect to the matters set forth in these bylaws; provided, however, that any references in these bylaws to state law or the Exchange Act or the rules promulgated thereunder are not intended to and shall not limit the requirements applicable to nominations to be considered pursuant to these bylaws. Nothing in these bylaws shall be deemed to affect any rights of the holders of any series of preferred stock of the Corporation to elect directors pursuant to any applicable provisions of the certificate of incorporation.

(j) For purposes of these bylaws,

(1) “Proposed Nominee Agreements” shall mean all direct and indirect compensation and other material monetary agreements, arrangements and understandings during the past three years, and any other material relationships, between or among a stockholder and any Stockholder Associated Person, and their respective affiliates and associates, or others acting in concert therewith, on the one hand, and a proposed nominee, and his or her respective affiliates and associates, or others acting in concert therewith, on the other hand, including without limitation all information that would be required to be disclosed pursuant to Rule 404 promulgated under Regulation S-K if the stockholder making the nomination or any Stockholder Associated Person were the “registrant” for purposes of such rule and the nominee were a director or executive officer of such registrant.

(2) “Voting Commitment” shall mean any agreement, arrangement or understanding between a prospective nominee and any person or entity, or any commitment or assurance given by a prospective nominee to any person or entity, as to how a prospective nominee, if elected as a director of the Corporation, will act or vote on any issue or question.

(iii) Other Requirements and Rights. In addition to the foregoing provisions of this Section 2.4, a stockholder must also comply with all applicable requirements of state law and of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations thereunder with respect to the matters set forth in this Section 2.4. Nothing in this Section 2.4 shall be deemed to affect any rights of:

(a) a stockholder to request inclusion of proposals in the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 (or any successor provision) under the Exchange Act; or

(b) the Corporation to omit a proposal from the Corporation’s proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 (or any successor provision) under the Exchange Act.

 

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2.5 NOTICE OF STOCKHOLDERS’ MEETINGS

Whenever stockholders are required or permitted to take any action at a meeting, a written notice of the meeting shall be given which shall state the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting, the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, if such date is different from the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting, and, in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called. Except as otherwise provided in the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, the written notice of any meeting of stockholders shall be given not less than 10 nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting.

2.6 QUORUM

The holders of a majority of the stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at all meetings of the stockholders. Where a separate vote by a class or series or classes or series is required, a majority of the outstanding shares of such class or series or classes or series, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum entitled to take action with respect to that vote on that matter, except as otherwise provided by law, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws. The stockholders present at a duly constituted meeting may continue to transact business until adjournment, notwithstanding the withdrawal of enough stockholders to leave less than a quorum.

If a quorum is not present or represented at any meeting of the stockholders, then either (i) the chairman of the meeting, or (ii) the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, present in person or represented by proxy, shall have power to adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum is present or represented. At such adjourned meeting at which a quorum is present or represented, any business may be transacted that might have been transacted at the meeting as originally noticed.

2.7 ADJOURNED MEETING; NOTICE

When a meeting is adjourned to another time or place, unless these bylaws otherwise require, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time, place, if any, thereof, and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken. At the adjourned meeting, the Corporation may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment is for more than 30 days, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting. If after the adjournment a new record date for stockholders entitled to vote is fixed for the adjourned meeting, the board of directors shall fix a new record date for notice of such adjourned meeting in accordance with Section 213(a) of the DGCL and Section 2.11 of these bylaws, and shall give notice of the adjourned meeting to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at such adjourned meeting as of the record date fixed for notice of such adjourned meeting.

 

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2.8 CONDUCT OF BUSINESS

The chairman of any meeting of stockholders shall determine the order of business and the procedure at the meeting, including such regulation of the manner of voting and the conduct of business. The chairman of any meeting of stockholders shall be designated by the board of directors; in the absence of such designation, the chairman of the board, if any, the chief executive officer (in the absence of the chairman) or the president (in the absence of the chairman of the board and the chief executive officer), or in their absence any other executive officer of the Corporation, shall serve as chairman of the stockholder meeting.

2.9 VOTING

The stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of Section 2.11 of these bylaws, subject to Section 217 (relating to voting rights of fiduciaries, pledgors and joint owners of stock) and Section 218 (relating to voting trusts and other voting agreements) of the DGCL.

Except as may be otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, each stockholder shall be entitled to one vote for each share of common stock of the Corporation held by such stockholder.

Except as otherwise required by law, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, in all matters other than the election of directors, the affirmative vote of a majority of the voting power of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the subject matter shall be the act of the stockholders. Except as otherwise required by law, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, directors shall be elected by a plurality of the voting power of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the election of directors. Where a separate vote by a class or series or classes or series is required, in all matters other than the election of directors, the affirmative vote of the majority of shares of such class or series or classes or series present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting shall be the act of such class or series or classes or series, except as otherwise provided by law, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws.

2.10 STOCKHOLDER ACTION BY WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT A MEETING

Subject to the rights of the holders of the shares of any series of Preferred Stock or any other class of stock or series thereof that have been expressly granted the right to take action by written consent, any action required or permitted to be taken by the stockholders of the Corporation must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders of the Corporation and may not be effected by any consent in writing by such stockholders.

2.11 RECORD DATES

In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the board of directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the board of directors and which record date shall not be more than 60 nor less than 10 days before the date of such meeting. If the board of directors so fixes a date, such date shall also be the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting unless the board of directors determines, at the time it fixes such record date, that a later date on or before the date of the meeting shall be the date for making such determination.

 

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If no record date is fixed by the board of directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of and to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held.

A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the board of directors may fix a new record date for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and in such case shall also fix as the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote in accordance with the provisions of Section 213 of the DGCL and this Section 2.11 at the adjourned meeting.

In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights or the stockholders entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock, or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the board of directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted, and which record date shall be not more than 60 days prior to such action. If no record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the board of directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.

2.12 PROXIES

Each stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder by proxy authorized by an instrument in writing or by a transmission permitted by law filed in accordance with the procedure established for the meeting, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. The revocability of a proxy that states on its face that it is irrevocable shall be governed by the provisions of Section 212 of the DGCL. A written proxy may be in the form of a telegram, cablegram, or other means of electronic transmission which sets forth or is submitted with information from which it can be determined that the telegram, cablegram, or other means of electronic transmission was authorized by the person.

2.13 LIST OF STOCKHOLDERS ENTITLED TO VOTE

The officer who has charge of the stock ledger of the Corporation shall prepare and make, at least 10 days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting; provided, however, if the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote is less than 10 days before the meeting date, the list shall reflect the stockholders entitled to vote as of the tenth day before the meeting date. The stockholder list shall be arranged in alphabetical order and show the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. The Corporation shall not be required to include electronic mail addresses or other electronic contact information on such list. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder for any purpose germane to the meeting for a period of at least 10 days prior to the meeting (i) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (ii) during ordinary business hours, at the Corporation’s principal place of business. In the event that the Corporation determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the Corporation may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to stockholders of the Corporation. If the meeting is to be held at a place, then the list shall be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof, and may be examined by any stockholder who is present. If the meeting is to be held solely by means

 

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of remote communication, then the list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting. Such list shall presumptively determine the identity of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting and the number of shares held by each of them.

2.14 INSPECTORS OF ELECTION

Before any meeting of stockholders, the board of directors shall appoint an inspector or inspectors of election to act at the meeting or its adjournment. The number of inspectors shall be either one (1) or three (3). If any person appointed as inspector fails to appear or fails or refuses to act, then the chairman of the meeting may, and upon the request of any stockholder or a stockholder’s proxy shall, appoint a person to fill that vacancy.

Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of his or her duties, shall take and sign an oath to execute faithfully the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of his or her ability. The inspector or inspectors so appointed and designated shall (i) ascertain the number of shares of capital stock of the Corporation outstanding and the voting power of each share, (ii) determine the shares of capital stock of the Corporation represented at the meeting and the validity of proxies and ballots, (iii) count all votes and ballots, (iv) determine and retain for a reasonable period a record of the disposition of any challenges made to any determination by the inspectors, and (v) certify their determination of the number of shares of capital stock of the Corporation represented at the meeting and such inspector or inspectors’ count of all votes and ballots.

In determining the validity and counting of proxies and ballots cast at any meeting of stockholders of the Corporation, the inspector or inspectors may consider such information as is permitted by applicable law. If there are three (3) inspectors of election, the decision, act or certificate of a majority is effective in all respects as the decision, act or certificate of all.

ARTICLE III — DIRECTORS

3.1 POWERS

The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the board of directors, except as may be otherwise provided in the DGCL or the certificate of incorporation.

3.2 NUMBER OF DIRECTORS

The board of directors shall consist of one or more members, each of whom shall be a natural person. Unless the certificate of incorporation fixes the number of directors, the number of directors shall be determined from time to time solely by resolution adopted by a majority vote of the entire board of directors. No reduction of the authorized number of directors shall have the effect of removing any director before that director’s term of office expires.

3.3 ELECTION, QUALIFICATION AND TERM OF OFFICE OF DIRECTORS

Except as provided in Section 3.4 of these bylaws, each director, including a director elected to fill a vacancy, shall hold office until the expiration of the term for which elected and until such director’s successor is elected and qualified or until such director’s earlier death, resignation or removal. Directors need not be stockholders unless so required by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws. The certificate of incorporation or these bylaws may prescribe other qualifications for directors.

 

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3.4 RESIGNATION AND VACANCIES

Any director may resign at any time upon notice given in writing or by electronic transmission to the Corporation; provided, however, that if such notice is given by electronic transmission, such electronic transmission must either set forth or be submitted with information from which it can be determined that the electronic transmission was authorized by the director. A resignation is effective when the resignation is delivered unless the resignation specifies a later effective date or an effective date determined upon the happening of an event or events. Acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. A resignation which is conditioned upon the director failing to receive a specified vote for reelection as a director may provide that it is irrevocable. Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, when one or more directors resign from the board of directors, effective at a future date, a majority of the directors then in office, including those who have so resigned, shall have power to fill such vacancy or vacancies, the vote thereon to take effect when such resignation or resignations shall become effective.

Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, vacancies and newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors elected by all of the stockholders having the right to vote as a single class shall be filled only by a majority of the directors then in office, although less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director. If the directors are divided into classes, a person so elected by the directors then in office to fill a vacancy or newly created directorship shall hold office until the next election of the class for which such director shall have been chosen and until his or her successor shall have been duly elected and qualified.

If, at the time of filling any vacancy or any newly created directorship, the directors then in office constitute less than a majority of the whole board of directors (as constituted immediately prior to any such increase), the Court of Chancery may, upon application of any stockholder or stockholders holding at least 10% of the voting stock at the time outstanding having the right to vote for such directors, summarily order an election to be held to fill any such vacancies or newly created directorships, or to replace the directors chosen by the directors then in office as aforesaid, which election shall be governed by the provisions of Section 211 of the DGCL as far as applicable.

3.5 PLACE OF MEETINGS; MEETINGS BY TELEPHONE

The board of directors may hold meetings, both regular and special, either within or outside the State of Delaware.

Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, members of the board of directors, or any committee designated by the board of directors, may participate in a meeting of the board of directors, or any committee, by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and such participation in a meeting shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.

 

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3.6 REGULAR MEETINGS

Regular meetings of the board of directors may be held without notice at such time and at such place as shall from time to time be determined by the board of directors. Meetings of directors shall be held at least quarterly. In addition, the independent directors shall meet on a regular basis as often as necessary to fulfill their responsibilities, including at least annually in executive session without the presence of non-independent directors and management.

3.7 SPECIAL MEETINGS; NOTICE

Special meetings of the board of directors for any purpose or purposes may be called at any time by the chairman of the board of directors, the chief executive officer, the president, the secretary or a majority of the authorized number of directors, at such times and places as he or she or they shall designate.

Notice of the time and place of special meetings shall be:

(i) delivered personally by hand, by courier or by telephone;

(ii) sent by United States first-class mail, postage prepaid;

(iii) sent by facsimile; or

(iv) sent by electronic mail,

directed to each director at that director’s address, telephone number, facsimile number or electronic mail address, as the case may be, as shown on the Corporation’s records.

If the notice is (i) delivered personally by hand, by courier or by telephone, (ii) sent by facsimile or (iii) sent by electronic mail, it shall be delivered or sent at least 24 hours before the time of the holding of the meeting. If the notice is sent by United States mail, it shall be deposited in the United States mail at least four days before the time of the holding of the meeting. Any oral notice may be communicated to the director. The notice need not specify the place of the meeting (if the meeting is to be held at the Corporation’s principal executive office) nor the purpose of the meeting.

3.8 QUORUM; VOTING

At all meetings of the board of directors, a majority of the total authorized number of directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. If a quorum is not present at any meeting of the board of directors, then the directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum is present. A meeting at which a quorum is initially present may continue to transact business notwithstanding the withdrawal of directors, if any action taken is approved by at least a majority of the required quorum for that meeting.

The vote of a majority of the directors present at any meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the board of directors, except as may be otherwise specifically provided by statute, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws.

 

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If the certificate of incorporation provides that one or more directors shall have more or less than one vote per director on any matter, every reference in these bylaws to a majority or other proportion of the directors shall refer to a majority or other proportion of the votes of the directors.

3.9 BOARD ACTION BY WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT A MEETING

Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the board of directors, or of any committee thereof, may be taken without a meeting if all members of the board of directors or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission and the writing or writings or electronic transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the board of directors or committee. Such filing shall be in paper form if the minutes are maintained in paper form and shall be in electronic form if the minutes are maintained in electronic form.

3.10 FEES AND COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS

Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, the board of directors shall have the authority to fix the compensation of directors.

3.11 REMOVAL OF DIRECTORS

Any director or the entire Board of Directors may be removed from office at any time as provided for in the certificate of incorporation.

No reduction of the authorized number of directors shall have the effect of removing any director prior to the expiration of such director’s term of office.

ARTICLE IV — COMMITTEES

4.1 COMMITTEES OF DIRECTORS

The board of directors (i) may designate one or more committees, including an executive committee, consisting of one or more directors of the Corporation and (ii) shall during such period of time as any securities of the Corporation are listed on any exchange designate all committees required by the rules and regulations of such exchange. The board of directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the board of directors to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the board of directors and subject to the provisions of law, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the board of directors in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to be affixed to all papers which may require it.

4.2 COMMITTEE MINUTES

Each committee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings and report the same to the board of directors when required.

 

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4.3 MEETINGS AND ACTION OF COMMITTEES

Meetings and actions of committees shall be governed by, and held and taken in accordance with, the provisions of:

(i) Section 3.5 (place of meetings and meetings by telephone);

(ii) Section 3.6 (regular meetings);

(iii) Section 3.7 (special meetings; notice);

(iv) Section 3.8 (quorum; voting);

(v) Section 3.9 (board action by written consent without a meeting); and

(vi) Section 7.5 (waiver of notice)

with such changes in the context of those bylaws as are necessary to substitute the committee and its members for the board of directors and its members. However:

(i) any charters of the committees duly adopted by the board of directors and the applicable rules of any exchange on which any securities of the Corporation are listed shall prevail in the event of any conflict with these bylaws;

(ii) the time of regular meetings of committees may be determined by resolution of the committee;

(iii) special meetings of committees may also be called by resolution of the committee; and

(iv) notice of special meetings of committees shall also be given to all alternate members, who shall have the right to attend all meetings of the committee. The board of directors may adopt rules for the government of any committee not inconsistent with the provisions of these bylaws.

4.4 SUBCOMMITTEES

Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation, these bylaws or the resolutions of the board of directors designating the committee, a committee may create one or more subcommittees, each subcommittee to consist of one or more members of the committee, and delegate to a subcommittee any or all of the powers and authority of the committee.

ARTICLE V — OFFICERS

5.1 OFFICERS

The officers of the Corporation shall be a president and a secretary. The Corporation may also have, at the discretion of the board of directors, a chairman of the board of directors, a vice chairman of the board of directors, a chief executive officer, a chief financial officer, treasurer, one or more vice presidents, one or

 

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more assistant vice presidents, one or more assistant treasurers, one or more assistant secretaries, and any such other officers as may be appointed in accordance with the provisions of these bylaws. Any number of offices may be held by the same person.

5.2 APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS

The board of directors shall appoint the officers of the Corporation, except such officers as may be appointed in accordance with the provisions of Section 5.3 of these bylaws, subject to the rights, if any, of an officer under any contract of employment. A vacancy in any office because of death, resignation, removal, disqualification or any other cause shall be filled in the manner prescribed in this Section 5 for the regular election to such office.

5.3 SUBORDINATE OFFICERS

The board of directors may appoint, or empower the chief executive officer or, in the absence of a chief executive officer, the president, to appoint, such other officers and agents as the business of the Corporation may require. Each of such officers and agents shall hold office for such period, have such authority, and perform such duties as are provided in these bylaws or as the board of directors may from time to time determine.

5.4 REMOVAL AND RESIGNATION OF OFFICERS

Subject to the rights, if any, of an officer under any contract of employment, any officer may be removed, either with or without cause, by an affirmative vote of the majority of the board of directors at any regular or special meeting of the board of directors or, except in the case of an officer chosen by the board of directors, by any officer upon whom such power of removal may be conferred by the board of directors.

Any officer may resign at any time by giving written or electronic notice to the Corporation; provided, however, that if such notice is given by electronic transmission, such electronic transmission must either set forth or be submitted with information from which it can be determined that the electronic transmission was authorized by the officer. Any resignation shall take effect at the date of the receipt of that notice or at any later time specified in that notice. Unless otherwise specified in the notice of resignation, the acceptance of the resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. Any resignation is without prejudice to the rights, if any, of the Corporation under any contract to which the officer is a party.

5.5 VACANCIES IN OFFICES

Any vacancy occurring in any office of the Corporation shall be filled by the board of directors or as provided in Section 5.3.

5.6 REPRESENTATION OF SHARES OF OTHER CORPORATIONS

The chairman of the board of directors, the president, any vice president, the treasurer, the secretary or assistant secretary of this Corporation, or any other person authorized by the board of directors or the president or a vice president, is authorized to vote, represent, and exercise on behalf of this Corporation all rights incident to any and all shares of any other corporation or corporations standing in the name of this Corporation. The authority granted herein may be exercised either by such person directly or by any other person authorized to do so by proxy or power of attorney duly executed by such person having the authority.

 

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5.7 AUTHORITY AND DUTIES OF OFFICERS

All officers of the Corporation shall respectively have such authority and perform such duties in the management of the business of the Corporation as may be designated from time to time by the board of directors and, to the extent not so provided, as generally pertain to their respective offices, subject to the control of the board of directors.

5.8 THE CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD

The chairman of the board shall have the powers and duties customarily and usually associated with the office of the chairman of the board. The chairman of the board shall preside at meetings of the stockholders and of the board of directors.

5.9 THE VICE CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD

The vice chairman of the board shall have the powers and duties customarily and usually associated with the office of the vice chairman of the board. In the case of absence or disability of the chairman of the board, the vice chairman of the board shall perform the duties and exercise the powers of the chairman of the board.

5.10 THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER

The chief executive officer shall have, subject to the supervision, direction and control of the board of directors, ultimate authority for decisions relating to the supervision, direction and management of the affairs and the business of the Corporation customarily and usually associated with the position of chief executive officer, including, without limitation, all powers necessary to direct and control the organizational and reporting relationships within the Corporation. If at any time the office of the chairman and vice chairman of the board shall not be filled, or in the event of the temporary absence or disability of the chairman of the board and the vice chairman of the board, the chief executive officer shall perform the duties and exercise the powers of the chairman of the board unless otherwise determined by the board of directors.

5.11 THE PRESIDENT

The president shall have, subject to the supervision, direction and control of the board of directors, the general powers and duties of supervision, direction and management of the affairs and business of the Corporation customarily and usually associated with the position of president. The president shall have such powers and perform such duties as may from time to time be assigned to him or her by the board of directors, the chairman of the board or the chief executive officer. In the event of the absence or disability of the chief executive officer, the president shall perform the duties and exercise the powers of the chief executive officer unless otherwise determined by the board of directors.

5.12 THE VICE PRESIDENTS AND ASSISTANT VICE PRESIDENTS

Each vice president and assistant vice president shall have such powers and perform such duties as may from time to time be assigned to him or her by the board of directors, the chairman of the board, the chief executive officer or the president.

 

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5.13 THE SECRETARY AND ASSISTANT SECRETARIES

(i) The secretary shall attend meetings of the board of directors and meetings of the stockholders and record all votes and minutes of all such proceedings in a book or books kept for such purpose. The secretary shall have all such further powers and duties as are customarily and usually associated with the position of secretary or as may from time to time be assigned to him or her by the board of directors, the chairman of the board, the chief executive officer or the president.

(ii) Each assistant secretary shall have such powers and perform such duties as may from time to time be assigned to him or her by the board of directors, the chairman of the board, the chief executive officer, the president or the secretary. In the event of the absence, inability or refusal to act of the secretary, the assistant secretary (or if there shall be more than one, the assistant secretaries in the order determined by the board of directors) shall perform the duties and exercise the powers of the secretary.

5.14 THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER

The chief financial officer shall, subject to the supervision, direction and control of the board of directors, (a) have primary charge and custody of and be responsible for all funds and securities of the Corporation and (b) be responsible for the accounting and financial services of the Corporation, and shall have all such further powers and duties as are customarily and usually associated with the position of chief financial officer, or as may from time to time be assigned to him or her by the board of directors, the chairman, the chief executive officer or the president.

5.15 TREASURER AND ASSISTANT TREASURERS

(i) The treasurer shall, under the general supervision of the chief financial officer (a) have charge and custody of and be responsible for all funds and securities of the Corporation and (b) receive and give receipts for moneys due and payable to the Corporation from any source whatsoever, and deposit all such moneys in the name of the Corporation in such banks, trust companies or other depositaries as shall be selected in accordance with these bylaws, and shall have all such further powers and duties as are customarily and usually associated with the position of treasurer, or as may from time to time be assigned to him or her by the board of directors, the chairman, the chief executive officer, the president or the chief financial officer.

(ii) Each assistant treasurer shall have such powers and perform such duties as may from time to time be assigned to him or her by the board of directors, the chief executive officer, the president, the chief financial officer or the treasurer. In the event of the absence, inability or refusal to act of the treasurer, the assistant treasurer (or if there shall be more than one, the assistant treasurers in the order determined by the board of directors) shall perform the duties and exercise the powers of the treasurer.

ARTICLE VI — STOCK

6.1 STOCK CERTIFICATES; PARTLY PAID SHARES

The shares of the Corporation shall be represented by certificates, provided that the board of directors may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of its stock shall be uncertificated shares. Any such resolution shall not apply to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the Corporation. Every holder of stock represented by certificates shall be entitled

 

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to have a certificate signed by, or in the name of the Corporation by the chairman of the board of directors or vice-chairman of the board of directors, or the president or a vice-president, and by the treasurer or an assistant treasurer, or the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Corporation representing the number of shares registered in certificate form. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be a facsimile. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate has ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Corporation with the same effect as if such person were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue. The Corporation shall not have power to issue a certificate in bearer form.

The Corporation may issue the whole or any part of its shares as partly paid and subject to call for the remainder of the consideration to be paid therefor. Upon the face or back of each stock certificate issued to represent any such partly-paid shares, or upon the books and records of the Corporation in the case of uncertificated partly-paid shares, the total amount of the consideration to be paid therefor and the amount paid thereon shall be stated. Upon the declaration of any dividend on fully-paid shares, the Corporation shall declare a dividend upon partly-paid shares of the same class, but only upon the basis of the percentage of the consideration actually paid thereon.

6.2 SPECIAL DESIGNATION ON CERTIFICATES

If the Corporation is authorized to issue more than one class of stock or more than one series of any class, then the powers, the designations, the preferences, and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights shall be set forth in full or summarized on the face or back of the certificate that the Corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock; provided, however, that, except as otherwise provided in Section 202 of the DGCL, in lieu of the foregoing requirements there may be set forth on the face or back of the certificate that the Corporation shall issue to represent such class or series of stock, a statement that the Corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights. Within a reasonable time after the issuance or transfer of uncertificated stock, the Corporation shall send to the registered owner thereof a written notice containing the information required to be set forth or stated on certificates pursuant to this Section 6.2 or Sections 156, 202(a) or 218(a) of the DGCL or with respect to this Section 6.2 a statement that the Corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights. Except as otherwise expressly provided by law, the rights and obligations of the holders of uncertificated stock and the rights and obligations of the holders of certificates representing stock of the same class and series shall be identical.

6.3 LOST, STOLEN OR DESTROYED CERTIFICATES

Except as provided in this Section 6.3, no new certificates for shares shall be issued to replace a previously issued certificate unless the latter is surrendered to the Corporation and cancelled at the same time. The Corporation may issue a new certificate of stock or uncertificated shares in the place of any certificate theretofore issued by it, alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, and the Corporation may require the owner of the lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, or such owner’s legal representative, to give the Corporation a bond sufficient to indemnify it against any claim that may be made against it on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of any such certificate or the issuance of such new certificate or uncertificated shares.

 

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6.4 DIVIDENDS

The board of directors, subject to any restrictions contained in the certificate of incorporation or applicable law, may declare and pay dividends upon the shares of the Corporation’s capital stock. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the Corporation’s capital stock, subject to the provisions of the certificate of incorporation.

The board of directors may set apart out of any of the funds of the Corporation available for dividends a reserve or reserves for any proper purpose and may abolish any such reserve. Such purposes shall include but not be limited to equalizing dividends, repairing or maintaining any property of the Corporation, and meeting contingencies.

6.5 TRANSFER OF STOCK

Transfers of record of shares of stock of the Corporation shall be made only upon its books by the holders thereof, in person or by an attorney duly authorized, and, if such stock is certificated, upon the surrender of a certificate or certificates for a like number of shares, properly endorsed or accompanied by proper evidence of succession, assignation or authority to transfer; provided, however, that such succession, assignment or authority to transfer is not prohibited by the certificate of incorporation, these bylaws, applicable law or contract.

6.6 STOCK TRANSFER AGREEMENTS

The Corporation shall have power to enter into and perform any agreement with any number of stockholders of any one or more classes of stock of the Corporation to restrict the transfer of shares of stock of the Corporation of any one or more classes owned by such stockholders in any manner not prohibited by the DGCL.

6.7 REGISTERED STOCKHOLDERS

The Corporation:

(i) shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends and to vote as such owner;

(ii) shall be entitled to hold liable for calls and assessments the person registered on its books as the owner of shares; and

(iii) shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of another person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the laws of Delaware.

ARTICLE VII — MANNER OF GIVING NOTICE AND WAIVER

7.1 NOTICE OF STOCKHOLDERS’ MEETINGS

Notice of any meeting of stockholders, if mailed, is given when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at such stockholder’s address as it appears on the Corporation’s

 

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records. An affidavit of the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Corporation or of the transfer agent or other agent of the Corporation that the notice has been given shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.

7.2 NOTICE BY ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION

Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders pursuant to the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, any notice to stockholders given by the Corporation under any provision of the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws shall be effective if given by a form of electronic transmission consented to by the stockholder to whom the notice is given. Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the Corporation. Any such consent shall be deemed revoked if:

(i) the Corporation is unable to deliver by electronic transmission two consecutive notices given by the Corporation in accordance with such consent; and

(ii) such inability becomes known to the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Corporation or to the transfer agent, or other person responsible for the giving of notice.

However, the inadvertent failure to treat such inability as a revocation shall not invalidate any meeting or other action.

Any notice given pursuant to the preceding paragraph shall be deemed given:

 

  (i) if by facsimile telecommunication, when directed to a number at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice;

 

  (ii) if by electronic mail, when directed to an electronic mail address at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice;

 

  (iii) if by a posting on an electronic network together with separate notice to the stockholder of such specific posting, upon the later of (A) such posting and (B) the giving of such separate notice; and

 

  (iv) if by any other form of electronic transmission, when directed to the stockholder.

An affidavit of the secretary or an assistant secretary or of the transfer agent or other agent of the Corporation that the notice has been given by a form of electronic transmission shall, in the absence of fraud, be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.

An “electronic transmission” means any form of communication, not directly involving the physical transmission of paper, that creates a record that may be retained, retrieved, and reviewed by a recipient thereof, and that may be directly reproduced in paper form by such a recipient through an automated process.

7.3 NOTICE TO STOCKHOLDERS SHARING AN ADDRESS

Except as prohibited under the DGCL, without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders, any notice to stockholders given by the Corporation under the provisions of the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws shall be effective if given by a single written notice

 

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to stockholders who share an address if consented to by the stockholders at that address to whom such notice is given. Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the Corporation. Any stockholder who fails to object in writing to the Corporation, within 60 days of having been given written notice by the Corporation of its intention to send the single notice, shall be deemed to have consented to receiving such single written notice.

7.4 NOTICE TO PERSON WITH WHOM COMMUNICATION IS UNLAWFUL

Whenever notice is required to be given, under the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, to any person with whom communication is unlawful, the giving of such notice to such person shall not be required and there shall be no duty to apply to any governmental authority or agency for a license or permit to give such notice to such person. Any action or meeting which shall be taken or held without notice to any such person with whom communication is unlawful shall have the same force and effect as if such notice had been duly given. In the event that the action taken by the Corporation is such as to require the filing of a certificate under the DGCL, the certificate shall state, if such is the fact and if notice is required, that notice was given to all persons entitled to receive notice except such persons with whom communication is unlawful.

7.5 WAIVER OF NOTICE

Whenever notice is required to be given to stockholders, directors or other persons under any provision of the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, a written waiver, signed by the person entitled to notice, or a waiver by electronic transmission by the person entitled to notice, whether before or after the time of the event for which notice is to be given, shall be deemed equivalent to notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the stockholders or the board of directors, as the case may be, need be specified in any written waiver of notice or any waiver by electronic transmission unless so required by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws.

ARTICLE VIII — INDEMNIFICATION

8.1 INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS IN THIRD PARTY PROCEEDINGS

Subject to the other provisions of this Article VIII, the Corporation shall indemnify, to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, as now or hereinafter in effect, any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (a “Proceeding”) (other than an action by or in the right of the Corporation) by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director of the Corporation or an officer of the Corporation, or while a director of the Corporation or officer of the Corporation is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with such Proceeding if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause

 

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to believe such person’s conduct was unlawful. The termination of any Proceeding by judgment, order, settlement, conviction, or upon a plea of nolo contendere or its equivalent, shall not, of itself, create a presumption that the person did not act in good faith and in a manner which such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had reasonable cause to believe that such person’s conduct was unlawful.

8.2 INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS IN ACTIONS BY OR IN THE RIGHT OF THE CORPORATION

Subject to the other provisions of this Article VIII, the Corporation shall indemnify, to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, as now or hereinafter in effect, any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the Corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the Corporation, or while a director or officer of the Corporation is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another Corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation; except that no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the Corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

8.3 SUCCESSFUL DEFENSE

To the extent that a present or former director or officer of the Corporation has been successful on the merits or otherwise in defense of any action, suit or proceeding described in Section 8.1 or Section 8.2, or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, such person shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection therewith.

8.4 INDEMNIFICATION OF OTHERS

Subject to the other provisions of this Article VIII, the Corporation shall have power to indemnify its employees and its agents to the extent not prohibited by the DGCL or other applicable law. The board of directors shall have the power to delegate the determination of whether employees or agents shall be indemnified to such person or persons as the board of determines.

8.5 ADVANCED PAYMENT OF EXPENSES

Expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by an officer or director of the Corporation in defending any Proceeding shall be paid by the Corporation in advance of the final disposition of such Proceeding upon receipt of a written request therefor (together with documentation reasonably evidencing such expenses) and an undertaking by or on behalf of the person to repay such amounts if it shall ultimately be determined that the person is not entitled to be indemnified under this Article VIII or the DGCL. Such expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by former directors and officers or other employees and agents may be so paid upon such terms and conditions, if any, as the Corporation deems reasonably appropriate and shall be subject to the

 

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Corporation’s expense guidelines. The right to advancement of expenses shall not apply to any claim for which indemnity is excluded pursuant to these bylaws, but shall apply to any Proceeding referenced in Section 8.6(ii) or 8.6(iii) prior to a determination that the person is not entitled to be indemnified by the Corporation.

8.6 LIMITATION ON INDEMNIFICATION

Subject to the requirements in Section 8.3 and the DGCL, the Corporation shall not be obligated to indemnify any person pursuant to this Article VIII in connection with any Proceeding (or any part of any Proceeding):

(i) for which payment has actually been made to or on behalf of such person under any statute, insurance policy, indemnity provision, vote or otherwise, except with respect to any excess beyond the amount paid;

(ii) for an accounting or disgorgement of profits pursuant to Section 16(b) of the Exchange Act, or similar provisions of federal, state or local statutory law or common law, if such person is held liable therefor (including pursuant to any settlement arrangements);

(iii) for any reimbursement of the Corporation by such person of any bonus or other incentive-based or equity-based compensation or of any profits realized by such person from the sale of securities of the Corporation, as required in each case under the Exchange Act (including any such reimbursements that arise from an accounting restatement of the Corporation pursuant to Section 304 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), or the payment to the Corporation of profits arising from the purchase and sale by such person of securities in violation of Section 306 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act), if such person is held liable therefor (including pursuant to any settlement arrangements);

(iv) initiated by such person against the Corporation or its directors, officers, employees, agents or other indemnitees, unless (a) the board of directors authorized the Proceeding (or the relevant part of the Proceeding) prior to its initiation, (b) the Corporation provides the indemnification, in its sole discretion, pursuant to the powers vested in the Corporation under applicable law, (c) otherwise required to be made under Section 8.7 or (d) otherwise required by applicable law; or

(v) if prohibited by applicable law; provided, however, that if any provision or provisions of this Article VIII shall be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable for any reason whatsoever: (1) the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions of this Article VIII (including, without limitation, each portion of any paragraph or clause containing any such provision held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, that is not itself held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable) shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby; and (2) to the fullest extent possible, the provisions of this Article VIII (including, without limitation, each such portion of any paragraph or clause containing any such provision held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable) shall be construed so as to give effect to the intent manifested by the provision held invalid, illegal or unenforcebable.

8.7 DETERMINATION; CLAIM

If a claim for indemnification or advancement of expenses under this Article VIII is not paid in full within 90 days after receipt by the Corporation of the written request therefor, the claimant shall be entitled to an adjudication by a court of competent jurisdiction of his or her entitlement to such indemnification or

 

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advancement of expenses. The Corporation shall indemnify such person against any and all expenses that are incurred by such person in connection with any action for indemnification or advancement of expenses from the Corporation under this Article VIII, to the extent such person is successful in such action, and to the extent not prohibited by law. In any such suit, the Corporation shall, to the fullest extent not prohibited by law, have the burden of proving that the claimant is not entitled to the requested indemnification or advancement of expenses.

8.8 NON-EXCLUSIVITY OF RIGHTS

The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, this Article VIII shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which those seeking indemnification or advancement of expenses may be entitled under the certificate of incorporation or any statute, bylaw, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise, both as to action in such person’s official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding such office. The Corporation is specifically authorized to enter into individual contracts with any or all of its directors, officers, employees or agents respecting indemnification and advancement of expenses, to the fullest extent not prohibited by the DGCL or other applicable law.

8.9 INSURANCE

The Corporation may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any liability asserted against such person and incurred by such person in any such capacity, or arising out of such person’s status as such, whether or not the Corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such liability under the provisions of the DGCL.

8.10 SURVIVAL

The rights to indemnification and advancement of expenses conferred by this Article VIII shall continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director, officer, employee or agent and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a person.

8.11 EFFECT OF REPEAL OR MODIFICATION

Any amendment, alteration or repeal of this Article VIII shall not adversely affect any right or protection hereunder of any person in respect of any act or omission occurring prior to such amendment, alteration or repeal.

8.12 CERTAIN DEFINITIONS

For purposes of this Article VIII, references to the “Corporation” shall include, in addition to the resulting corporation, any constituent corporation (including any constituent of a constituent) absorbed in a consolidation or merger which, if its separate existence had continued, would have had power and authority to indemnify its directors, officers, employees or agents, so that any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of such constituent corporation, or is or was serving at the request of such constituent corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, shall stand in the same position under the provisions of this Article VIII with respect to the resulting or surviving corporation as such person would have with respect to such constituent corporation if

 

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its separate existence had continued. For purposes of this Article VIII, references to “other enterprises” shall include employee benefit plans; references to “fines” shall include any excise taxes assessed on a person with respect to an employee benefit plan (excluding any “parachute payments” within the meanings of Sections 280G and 4999 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended); and references to “serving at the request of the Corporation” shall include any service as a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation which imposes duties on, or involves services by, such director, officer, employee or agent with respect to an employee benefit plan, its participants or beneficiaries; and a person who acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in the interest of the participants and beneficiaries of an employee benefit plan shall be deemed to have acted in a manner “not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation” as referred to in this Article VIII.

ARTICLE IX — GENERAL MATTERS

9.1 EXECUTION OF CORPORATE CONTRACTS AND INSTRUMENTS

Except as otherwise provided by law, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, the board of directors may authorize any officer or officers, or agent or agents, to enter into any contract or execute any document or instrument in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation; such authority may be general or confined to specific instances. Unless so authorized or ratified by the board of directors or within the agency power of an officer, no officer, agent or employee shall have any power or authority to bind the Corporation by any contract or engagement or to pledge its credit or to render it liable for any purpose or for any amount.

9.2 FISCAL YEAR

The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be fixed by resolution of the board of directors and may be changed by the board of directors.

9.3 SEAL

The Corporation may adopt a corporate seal, which shall be adopted and which may be altered by the board of directors. The Corporation may use the corporate seal by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or in any other manner reproduced.

9.4 CONSTRUCTION; DEFINITIONS

Unless the context requires otherwise, the general provisions, rules of construction and definitions in the DGCL shall govern the construction of these bylaws. Without limiting the generality of this provision, the singular number includes the plural, the plural number includes the singular and the term “person” includes both an entity and a natural person.

ARTICLE X — AMENDMENTS

The board of directors shall have the power to adopt, amend, alter or repeal these bylaws by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors present at any regular or special meeting of the board of directors at which a quorum is present. The stockholders may not adopt, amend, alter or repeal these bylaws, or adopt any provision inconsistent therewith, unless such action is approved, in addition to any other vote required by the certificate of incorporation, by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3% of the voting power of the issued and outstanding capital stock of the Corporation entitled to vote in the election of directors.

 

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